Ecology, Environment and Conservation Paper

Vol 24, Issue 1 2018; Page No.(455-461)

EXPLORATION OF COMPETENCE AND COST EFFICACY OF PSYCHIATRY FOR WATER DRAW OFF SYSTEM

B. Venkatesan, K. Ravichandran, S. Praveen and D.M. Senthil Kumar

Abstract

Wastewater use in agriculture and its land application for treatment purposes is a global practice. Wastewater is a complex resource, with both advantages and Inconveniences to its use. To the extent that wastewater and its nutrient contents can be used for Crop production and other agricultural enterprises including aquaculture, it can provide significant Benefits to the farming communities and society in general. Wastewater use can also impose negative impacts on communities using this resource and on ecosystems. The biggest challenge is how best to minimize the negative effects of wastewater use, while at the same time obtain the maximum benefits from this resource. While most of the impacts of wastewater use, both negative as well as positive, are generally known, a comprehensive valuation of the benefits and costs of these impacts has not as yet been attempted. Conventional cost benefit analysis is not adequate to evaluate wastewater impacts due to the environmental and public good nature of the impacts. To fill this gap in knowledge, this paper attempts to develop a comprehensive assessment framework applying available and tested techniques in environmental and socio economical analysis, for the comprehensive evaluation of the costs and benefits of wastewater. The paper presents an approach for analyzing the socioeconomic, health, and environmental aspects of urban wastewater use in peri-urban agriculture, using typical characteristics of a major city in a developing country. The break even cost analysis has proceeded for a pilot scale study and the cost benefits analysis has been by comparison of break even coast analysis with advanced water treatment.

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